Sunday, January 19, 2020
Comparing Reality and Illusion in Glass Menagerie, Death of a Salesman, and A Raisin in the Sun :: comparison compare contrast essays
Reality vs. Illusion in The Glass Menagerie, The Death of a Salesman, and A Raisin in the Sun Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã All three stories are centered on lower income families in urban settings. Each story has one main dreamer with other characters being in various states of reality. Amanda Wingfield, Willy Loman, and Walter Lee Younger are all living on pipe dreams. Amanda dreams of her days on the front porch surrounded by her gentleman callers. Willy is the all time king of pipe dreams bouncing from past to future with imagining how everything would have been different if he had gone to Alaska (or Africa) with his brother Ben or will be different when Howard makes him showroom salesman at the home office or Biff gets ten (fifteen) thousand dollars for his new business idea. Walter Lee is a smart hard working man but he is so eager to be financially successful that his common sense is blurred and he allows con man Willie Harris to take him for the families ten thousand dollars. Amanda's reality check comes from another dreamer, her son, Tom who is totally annoyed by Amanda's nagging and domineering, he thinks that everything will be better if he can just get away. Amanda and her family go on living their fantasy lives. Willy gets it from all sides; primarily his conflict is with Biff but also Charley, Howard, and Bernard. He is an average man who truly believes he is better than those around him, and that his sons, especially Biff, are greater still, but people, he has very little respect for, are all more successful than he is. Biff starts out like Willy perhaps but comes to the realization that being an average man is okay. Willy never comes to that conclusion; in fact he decides he is more valuable dead than alive. Walter Lee probably has the best grasp on reality and the highest hill to climb of all the dreamers in these stories. This story could probably only take place in a northern city in the United States at that time. His reality check comes from Lena Younger, his mother, a highly spiritual woman with a strong sense of what right and wrong is. Lena has raised Walter Lee to be a good man but he is eager to find a shortcut out of the ghetto and be treated with respect.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
According to Atlas (2008), Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a multidisciplinary approach to prevent criminal behavior through environmental design. In order to achieve deterrence effects of criminal behavior, CPTED strategies have been designed to rely on their ability to influence offenderÃ¢â¬â¢s decision that precedes criminal acts. Therefore CPTED can be seen as an approach to problem solving that takes into account the environmental conditions and the opportunities they offer for criminal behavior occurrence (Cornish and Clarke 1986). Thereafter, it utilizes those perceived opportunities responsible for causing crimes to control access, provide opportunity to see and to be seen and defines ownership while encouraging territory maintenance (Luedtke et al, 1970). In this context CPTED approach to criminology differs greatly from other policing approaches in the sense that CPTED focuses on design in crime prevention unlike other approaches that employ target hardening. Furthermore, CPTED encourage crime prevention through design and place, while policing values effective response to crime incidences by identification and arresting the offenders (Kruger and Liebermann, 2001). In this regard, crime prevention through environmental design can be considered to be slightly different from traditional policing, but its consistent with problem- oriented policing in four ways: first, touches on the broad scope of problem and not crime only; second, involves systematic analysis of crime factors, events and conditions that fosters crime occurrence; third, leads to design of proactive strategies tailored to problem and the specific geographical locations; fourth, involves all stakeholders and makes them active participants for the program for sake of longÃ¢â¬âterm achievement and improvement (Cornish and Clarke 1986). However, it should be noted that CPTED approach focus on design and not safety, and on productive use not security. Therefore this unique focus makes it people centered as opposed to the view that it is police responsibility. However, the tool of design and techniques fall purview of policing prompting it to be a team effort, and thus police participate in the program but do not necessarily control. Historical evolution since 1970s The origin and formulation leading to emergence of CPTED was initially done by criminologist Jeffery Ray who termed it as defensible space and later on it was improved on by architect Newman Oscar (Jeffery1977; Newman1972). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a point of worth to note that both Newman and Jeffery were building on the work of Elizabeth Wood. By 1990s Jeffery and Newman models were expanded to involve a multidisciplinary with Newman`s model limiting itself to the built environment. But by 2004, the adopted CPTED model s were those of Newman and Crowe, since Jeffery model was more of psychology and biology and could not fully support the 2nd generation CPTED (Jeffery1977; Newman1972; Crowe, 2000). Furthermore, in 2005 CPTED has gained internationally recognition and acceptance with dropping off Jeffery `s notion of offenderÃ¢â¬â¢s internal environment (Jeffery1977 Crowe, 2000). The theoretically foundation evolution of CPTED can be traced back in 1960s when Elizabeth Wood developed guidelines aimed at addressing security issues when she was working with Chicago housing authority (Clarke, 1992). In her guidelines, she emphasized on the design that would lead to supporting natural surveillability, though ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas were never implemented, they evolved into simple implementation such as street lights to distinguish between outlaws and thieves from legitimate travelers (Luedtke et al, 1970). Today, evolution of theories and research behind CPTED design are rooted in the environmental criminology theories which explain the relationship between place and crime; and also borrow some ideas from rational theories focusing on situational prevention (Clarke, 1992). Both cluster of theories focus on the crime events and how criminal understand and use environmental to their advantage to commit crimes. This evolution in research and theoretical foundation has played a central role in informing strategic design to employ. Strategies utilized in CPTED Strategies formulation in relation to CPTED approach are rooted in the theoretical foundation and scholarly research conducted by criminologists. Crowe (2000) reports that the central tenet used to arrive at the strategies is the analysis of crime and the environment where it occur using an analytic question Ã¢â¬Å"why hereÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, such analyses have proved that: crimes are specific and situational; crime distribution correlates to land use and transport network; and offenders are usually optimistic and commits crime in place they know well (Atlas, 2008). Moreover, these analyses reveal that opportunities for crime arise out of daily activities and crime places that are often without observer. In reaction to the analyses, criminologists who are proponents of CPTED designed necessary strategies in line with the findings. These are; Natural surveillance, target hardening, terrestrial reinforcement and natural access control (Newman1972; Crowe, 2000) Territorial reinforcement This is physical design that extends a sphere of influence that enhances users to develop sense of territorial control while potential criminals are discouraged while perceiving these controls (Goldstein, 1990). This is promoted and facilitated by features defining property line such as public and private, signs, pavement designs, or gardens well maintained indicate someone takes care of it. This ensures that only persons that belong to a particular place are their. Target hardening Target hardening strategy in CPTED is usually accomplished by features that prohibit access or entry (Kruger and Liebermann, 2001). These features can include locks, interior door hinges or dead bolt for door, gates units points of entry to certain place, fences, trees line, support of alarm system is also useful and can reinforce the design (Cohen, 1979). Natural surveillance These are programs designed aiming at keeping offenders or intruders observable, this is attained by place design that gives an opportunity to see site perimeter or designs that facilitate to see or/and be seen (Kruger and Liebermann, 2001). It is usually achieved through sufficient lighting that enables to observe activities and individuals, building location and orientation, windows that offer two way views. The design features that facilitate natural surveillance need to be supported by observer or CCTV to maximize its effectiveness (Atlas, 2008). Natural access control This strategy aims at decreasing crime opportunity by employing design that denies access to crime targets while at the same time creating a risk perception in criminals (Goldstein, 1990). The strategy is achieved through street designs like side walks, entrance construction and neighborÃ¢â¬â¢s gates; in order to prohibit entrance to private places that discourages ill motives. However, the essence and usefulness of the strategies used in CPTED is not in their effective design, but rather in their implementation and application to offer desired goal (Cornish and Clarke 1986). It`s indisputable that application of CPTED to community has resulted to impressive results that Atlas (2008) reports that accounts to 40% decline in crimes occurrence and prevalence in areas where it has been implemented, this has been accrued to design that minimizes criminal behaviors while encouraging individuals to keep eye on each other, therefore proper implementation is critical to program success. Application and Implementation of CPTED The problem solving approach that uses CPTED is applied in a series of steps that are designed to respond to: what is the problem? Why here? What can be done to solve it? And how well do we solve the problem? (Kruger and Liebermann, 2001) In order to address and satisfy these hypothetical questions in analyzing a crime scene to inform prevention through CPTED approach, application and implementation is usually done through four phases. These four phases of application as stipulated by Goldstein (1990) are: scanning, analyzing, response and assessment (Table1. Application and implementation phases). These phases of application and implementation stages addresses environmental design issues that are critical to applying CPTED strategies in order to solve security problems. Importantly, various factors ought to be considered when applying the program in relation to specific locations and circumstances. As Atlas (2008) acknowledges, easy said than done also do apply to implementation of CPTED program. Challenges in implementing CPTED Like any other project, implementation is usually engulfed in normal problems that face any change process not mentioning resistance. However, the major problems that can be conceptualized in the implementation process of CPTED program are two. First, time allocation for the program implementation may hamper realization of the project goals (Cohen, 1979; Goldstein, 1990). This is in the sense that sometimes time allocated for the implementation of the program may require additional of a longer duration as a result of complexities arising from project implementation while impacting a larger geographical area with a larger number of stakeholders (Table2. Stakeholders involved in CPTED implementation). Secondly, the cost of implementing CPTED program requires significant capital investment (Cohen, 1979) that is really a barrier. However, the challenges of implementation are inventible, yet they can be solved through efficient and effective leadership, increased participation and involvement, and wider consultation with all stakeholders for any given CPTED program.
Friday, January 3, 2020
The Sociological Challenges to Religious Belief The sociological approach to religious belief looks at how society behaves on a whole, to answer the question, Why are people religious? Durkheim tried to show that religion, despite its importance to the religious individual, was a separate social experience. He defined religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things. Therefore we must understand sacred symbols and what they represent. As a Functionalist, religion maintains social stability by removing tension that can disrupt social order. Religion is seen in a positive light, promoting harmony in society. He studied the Australian Aborigines, where each clanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Marx had a utopian vision of the future in which all people would be equal because the class system would no longer exist and no one would be exploited. He thought society fell into two groups, the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The ruling class owned the means of production whilst the working class could sell their labour to the ruling class. The ruling class exploited the proletariat by paying them very little. This resulted in the proletariat feeling alienated from society. He believed that the only way out of this situation was for the proletariat to rise up against the ruling class and seize the means of production. Once the people owned the means of production, social classes would disappear and there would be no need for religion, since it existed only under the old social conditions. Religion was seen as an illusion, it dulls the pain of oppression for the proletariat but at the same time it blinds them form their true reality, stopping them seeing what needs to be done to end their exploitation, as Marx infamously puts it, It is the opium of the people. A slightly different perspective came from Weber, who was more concerned with trying to discover links between types of religion and social life, with a particular emphasis on economics. He believed that religion grew from the belief of magic and they were an attempt to make sense of the world. OverShow MoreRelatedMarxist Perspective On Religion And Liberation Theology1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand power structures such as religious institutions, the power relations of the economy were reinforced by Ã¢â¬Å"traditional religious icons or the modern icons of mass consumerismÃ¢â¬ (Callaghan 199). His belief that religious icons and icons of mass consumerism are reinforcing oppressive structures could be viewed as a type of Ã¢â¬Å"methodological atheismÃ¢â¬ , for Marx fails to acknowledge the significance of transcendence for those practicing religion. In the chapter, Ã¢â¬Å"Sociological ApproachesÃ¢â¬ , Northcott pointsRead MoreSociology as a Perspective 1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSociologist argue that Ã¢â¬Å"the sociological perspective is a way of thinking; a form of consciousness that challenges familiar understandings of ourselves and of others, so we can critically asses the truth commonly held assumptionsÃ¢â¬ (Micionis and Plummer 2008:10). This essay supports this statement by analysing and discussing the significance of sociological perspective in our everyday lives. According to Peter L. Berger sociological perspective is described as the link between societal events andRead MoreFamily and Religion : Influence on People Essay1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfather as the breadwinner and the mother staying at home and raising the children. Now, very few families follow that norm and number of family who general do is fewer than generally imagined. Regardless of the ideal, many families now face the challenges of living wit h one income or trying to fix family affairs when both parents work. But with time comes changes, which are taking positive turns in the family. Fathers are now discovering the positive side of taking home and taking care of theRead MoreIs Education An Agent Of Socialization? Essay1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesoverall pessimistic, perhaps more now than ever before (Kohn). From a sociological perspective, I would research the history and development of education and its role as an agent of socialization on individuals. Using religious studies, I would look into the varying views of different beliefs and their definitions of what education, knowledge, and success should mean to a human being. By collaborating my knowledge in both religious studies and sociology to compare the ultimate purpose and meaning ofRead MoreSociological Imagination and Social Issues1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSociological Imagination and Social Issues People are more likely to use psychological arguments to explain why things are they way they are rather than look at the sociological aspect of them. They think that problems happening in their lives are personal and overlook that they may be caused by society (Ferris amp; Stein 13). Sociological imagination challenges people to look at the Ã¢â¬Å"intersection between biography and historyÃ¢â¬ and see the role we each play in society (Mills 1959 and Ferris amp;Read MoreJohn Brown: A Social Raid1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmy blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments-I submit; so let it be done.Ã¢â¬ -John Brown. John Brown came from a history of religious, military and anti-slavery family. Through his life he has dealt with mutipule losses such as His grandfather who died in the Revolutionary War. The greatest loss of all was the death of his mother at a y oung age. Ã¢â¬Å"This loss was complete and permanentRead MoreA Sociological Look at the Feminist Movement the Civil Rights Movement1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMovement Lauren Greene SYG2000 Tuesday/Thursday 5:00 pm December 9, 2012 Social Movements Impact Western Culture For centuries, large groups of individuals have come together to oppose prevailing ideas, challenge conformity and promote great change in beliefs, government policy and overall social reform. Whether it is an instinctual component of human existence or a way of survival as learned from previous generations, social reform is an integral part of Western cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s growthRead MoreReligion As A Cultural System1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSociologists define religion as a cultural system of commonly shared beliefs and rituals that provides a sense of ultimate meaning and purpose by creating an idea of reality that is sacred, all-encompassing and supernatural (Durkheim in Giddens 2006 p.534). Religion can be viewed as a lifestyle or culture for some people: This culture entails united beliefs, the same values, customs and philosophies that generates a shared distinctiveness among a group of people. All religions have a behaviouralRead MoreEssay about The Sociology of the Industriali zation Process690 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagessociology. The Sociological theories helps to understand the structure and dynamics of the industrialization process, and to resolve its concomitant social problems, like high levels of crime. It is concerned largely with urban societies, and seeks to understand how individuals fit into mass society, how inequalities based on race, gender and class arise and are perpetuated, how bureaucracies work. The process generated due to the critical analysis about society, which challenges what, is normallyRead MoreSimilarities In The Opposition. Ideas Do Not Prove Their909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSimilarities in the Opposition Ideas do not prove their value until they withstand the challenge of being questioned. On the surface, professor Craig Martin and anthropologist Clifford Geertz approach analyzing religion with opposing views. Martin dismisses definitions of religion claiming that no definition can encompass the practical use of the word and instead provides a step by step approach to explaining beliefs and actions in the perspective of a methodological atheist. Geertz, however, provides
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Semester A Unit 5 Lesson 9 Introduction and Objective WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve looked at video resources to provide new information and have learned about other places you can search to find more on the topic you are studying. You search topics on the Internet and can find almost an unlimited amount of information. All of the different ways to find information, view information, and learn information can help in comprehension, as well as in deciding whether or not to believe an argument or opinion. Today s lesson objective is: Students will be able to synthesize a variety of formats and media to develop an understanding of a topic. Take a moment to think about the objective. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen this objective before. What learning skills have you used toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Websites can have magazines, newspapers, articles, recordings, letters, videos, encyclopedias, textbooks, and so much more. To find information from a website, the first thing you do is search the topic. Using the Einstein letter as an example, the following are some suggestions for finding exactly what you are looking for: 1. Put what you are looking for in quotation marks to search sites that include those exact words, next to each other, in the exact manner. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"theory of relativity.Ã¢â¬ 2. Use the word Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬ in order to search two terms. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"Einstein and Roosevelt.Ã¢â¬ 3. There is a trick to eliminating finds on the web that you do not want. Using the word Ã¢â¬Å"notÃ¢â¬ will rule out searches. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"heart NOT love.Ã¢â¬ ELA6_A_5_8_ACT_1 How can you be sure that what you are reading, viewing, or listening to electronically is trustworthy? The ending of the address is key! Take a look at the chart below. Ending? Who? Trustworthy? .com Companies or Commercial Organizations Some companies are creating educational content on their websites, but commercial sites also contain biased advertising and information. .edu Educational or Research Institutions Educational that contain reliable information about research being conducted at the institution. .gov or .mil Governmental or Military Organizations These are government and military sites. Are credible and often related toward education. .org Not-for-Profit Organizations Given that these are
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Exploring the Evil of Colonialism in Heart of Darkness A masterpiece of twentieth-century writing, Heart of Darkness exposes the tenuous fabric that holds civilization together and the brutal horror at the center of European colonialism. Joseph Conrads novella, Heart of Darkness, describes a life-altering journey that the protagonist, Marlow, experiences in the African Congo. The story explores the historical period of colonialism in Africa to exemplify Marlows struggles. Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is most often read as an attack upon colonialism. Marlow, like other Europeans of his time, is brought up to believe certain things about colonialism, but his views change as he experiences the effects of colonialism firstÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Marlow also makes the comment that the accountant had verily accomplished something when he taught a native woman to do his laundry. He admired the fact that the accountant had actually done part of the real duty of colonization by civilizing a native to some degree. Marlow also learns t hat he is of the gang of virtue and that he is part of the party of the unsound method, just as Kurtz was when he arrived. The unsound method, as evidenced by the paper Kurtz came to Africa to write, refers to the movement to redirect colonization efforts toward civilizing the natives. When Kurtz dies, Marlow identifies himself as the last surviving party of the unsound method. Thus, Marlow, the hero of the book, is clearly for the colonization and civilization of other peoples. Through Kurtz, Marlow finds out what colonialism can do to a man s soul if he lets go of this morality, and gets carried away into the colonial darkness. Kurtz is a man praised by everyone for his knowledge and ability to bring progress. He is proclaimed a universal genius (Conrad 91). He is even chosen by the International Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs to write a report for them, but on the very last page he scribbled in, Exterminate the Brutes (Conrad 117). I think this represents the shared colonial attitude towards the African people. As Kurtz approachesShow MoreRelatedThe Darkness of Imperialism in In Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad567 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages In Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad, the interpretation of pre-colonial times is interesting in a way that supersedes other books IÃ¢â¬â¢ve read because itÃ¢â¬â¢s very honest with how the world worked it that era. The central aim which the shipmates in Heart of Darkness are pursuing is the expansion of their home countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ empires. Yet many people are hurt in this enterprise, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not only the colonized territories that are impacted negatively by imperialist Europe. EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s explorers thatRead MoreHeart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad1329 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Heart of Darkness is a novel written by Joseph Conrad. The setting of the book is in Belgian Congo, which was the most infamous European colony in Africa. This is a story about the protagonist MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to self discovery, and his experiences in Congo. ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s story explores the colonialism period in Africa to demonstrate MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles. Along the way, he faces insanity, death, his fear of failure, and cultural contamination as he makes his was to the inner station. Conrad through theRead MoreEssay about Heart of Darkness1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe evils that surrounded the well sometimes ill-disguised motives of explorers, colonial administrators and their adventures. This essay provides an in depth review of Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness, a classical novella that illustrates without bias the motives behind human intentions and the extremes individuals can go to achieve wealth and profits at the expense of others with the aim of sheddin g insight into the rise of European imperialism, the imperial history, its politics and evil activitiesRead MoreThe Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad983 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad is a story that takes place in the early 1890s and presents us with an odyssey of a traveler known as Marlow who confronts the dangers of the Congo jungle while also witnessing the wicked, inhumane treatment of the African natives. In the story, Marlow represents Joseph Conrad who had actually traveled up the Congo in 1890 and witnessed the European exploitation of the African natives firsthand. In the Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad exposes the inhumanityRead MoreThe Effects Of Greed In Joseph Conrads Heart Of Darkness1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdisplayed in Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s, Heart of Darkness. Raising questions about both racism and imperialism, the novel includes Kurtz, a character with greed for the valuable resource, ivory. Conrad comments on the horrific corru ptibility of humanity through the narrator, Charles Marlow. In the novella, Heart of Darkness, Conrad includes symbols such as MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt and the accountant who represent the treachery of imperialism, Kurtz who symbolizes greed, and darkness which represents the evil of humanityRead More Ambiguities Explored in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmbiguities Explored in Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Ã Literature is never interpreted in exactly the same way by two different readers. A prime example of a work of literature that is very ambiguous is Joseph Conrads, Heart of Darkness. The Ambiguities that exist in this book are Marlows relationship to colonialism, Marlows changing feelings toward Kurtz, and Marlows lie to the Intended at the end of the story. Ã One interpretation of Marlows relationship to colonialism is that he doesRead MoreThe Distorted Images in Heart of Darkness4513 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesThe distorted images in Heart of Darkness Abstract In Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad exposes the evil of the imperialism and pays sympathy to the oppressed Africans. But affected by imperialist ideology, he serves as a racist and a defender of the imperialism when he attempts to condemn the colonizers. This paper will be analyzing the distorted images in Heart of darkness from the perspective of post-colonialism and Orientalism theory. The present paper is divided into five parts: Part 1 isRead More Symbols, Setting, and Ironies of Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness1201 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSymbols, Setting, and Ironies of Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Joseph Conrads novel, Heart of Darkness, is about many things: seafaring, riverboating, trade and exploration, imperialism and colonialism, race relations, the attempt to find meaning in the universe while trying to get at the mysteries of the subconscious mind. Heart of Darkness is a vivid portrayal of European imperialism.Ã The book in other words is a story about European acts of imperial mastery (1503)-its methods, and the effectsRead MoreExposing Colonialism and Imperialism in Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness1940 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Evil of Colonialism Exposed in Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Marlow was an average European man with average European beliefs. Like most Europeans of his time, Marlow believed in colonialism; that is, until he met Kurtz. Kurtz forces Marlow to rethink his current beliefs after Marlow learns the effects of colonialism deep in the African Congo. In Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness, Marlow learns that he has lived his entire life believing in a sugar-coated evil.Ã Marlows understanding of KurtzsRead More The Metaphors of Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Metaphors of Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Ã Ã Within the text of Heart of Darkness, the reader is presented with many metaphors. Those that recur, and are most arresting and notable, are light and dark, nature and Kurtz and Marlow. The repeated use of light and dark imagery represents civilization and primitiveness, and of course the eternal meaning of good and evil. However, the more in depth the reader goes the more complex it becomes. Complex also are the meanings behind the metaphors of nature
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Financial Management In Profit Organization? Answer: Introduction The study aims to identify and evaluate the key differences of financial management between a profit and a not-for-profit organization, where the two different organizations are selected to support the understanding of the need of financial management in not-for-profit organization (Bryce, 2017). Demonstrating key differences of financial management There are several differences between a profit and not-for- profit organisation. While the aim of the profit organisation is to generate income by selling goods and providing services. Their nature of business is to earn profit. On the flipside, not-for-profit organizations are more service oriented, where they raise funds by the way of donations, for instances, public hospitals and trusts are not directly involved in earning revenue (Arvidson and Lyon, 2014, p.875). On the financial aspect, profit motive organizations need to maintain financial statements according to the rules of AASB and IASB. However, only income and expenditure account, receipt and payment account along with classified balance sheet are required to be prepared in not-for-profit organizations. Profit organisation is managed either by sole proprietor partner or by directors whereas the not-for-profit organisation is managed by either committee, trustees or by governing bodies. Money earned beyond by the profit organisation is delivered to the capital account, on the other hand, the surplus of revenue over expenditure which results in the excess is delivered to the capital fund. Profit organisation pay taxes for the profit that they made but not-for-profit do not distribute profit individuals they may be tax exempt. When a profit organisation goes out of business they can liquidate their assets and give money to the shareholder whereas if a not-for-profit goes out of business its assets must be donated to other not-for-profit organization that has a similar mission. Profit organisation are generally based to generate revenue for business people and their employee but not-for-profit are generally based to serve a humane and environmental need. Understanding the differences between Wesfarmers Limited and Community Housing Council of South Australia Wesfarmers Limited being an ASX listed profit earning organization must prepare financial statements with respect to the guidelines and accounting frameworks laid by AASB and IASB. It can be seen from the yearly reports of Wesfarmers, that the gathering working sections are sorted out and overseen exclusively by the character of the items. Intrigue pay and cost are not dispensed to working part, since these sorts of exercises are taken care of on the gathering premise. The disorganized objects provide information about the thing that are not perceived in the monetary proclamation but rather could significantly affect the Group's budgetary position and execution. However, other objects give information on things which require revelations to concur with AASB and other overseeing articulation. All things considered, these are not viewed as crucial in understanding the money related introduction or position of the gathering (www.wesfarmers.com.au, 2017). On the counterpart, Community Housing Council of South Australias financial statement is different, where only income and expenditure is prepared (chcsa.org.au, 2017). However, this organization also prepares comprehensive income statement including the receipt of donation and funds in the form of revenue. Interest income is named intrigue expands while utilizing the compelling interest technique. This is a technique for ascertaining the recovered cost of a monetary resources and disseminating the premium income over the appropriate time-span by utilizing the effective interest rates on various loans and advances, which is the rate that precisely deducts to figure future money voucher to the normal existence of the budgetary advantage for the net conveying total of the financial resources. Exchange and others payable sum speaks to liabilities for merchandise and ventures gave to the joined affiliation and before to the finish of the money related year and which is unpaid. Due to thei r transient nature, they are figured at the stifled cost and it is not reduced. Critical evaluation of the differences According to Zeff. et al (2014, p.240) the financial management system of profit motive organizations like Wesfarmers Limited, are completely based on the accounting guidelines, which are helpful for the stakeholders to read and understand the financial perspective of the company and take valuable decision. On the other hand, Lvanov and Avasilc?i (2014, p.1192), have also supported the fact, but made contradict judgment in case of not-for-profit organization, where Newberry (2014, p.295), explained that these kinds of organizations do not require to maintain such format for preparing annual report since they do not depend on the public stock. In addition, Finkler. et al (2016) cited that contributors to not-for-profit organization also receives benefit because their contributions are tax deductible. They also clarified that some of the not-for-profit organisation are forced to discontinue their service to the community in need when not-for-profit itself lacks. For profit organisation if the business goes down the final advantage of the company is that their assets are highly liquid and the owner can sell the company's assets so that they can arrange liability or for personal profit. However, Skelcher and Smith (2015, p.440) supported for not-for-profit organisation and said that many employees that work under not-for-profit organisation have an individual interest and conditions to the organisations cause. While not supporting the scenario Arvidson and Lyon (2014, p.870) explained that potential rebound and social fight harass some not-for-profit organisation whose duty are considered intense, either they are based on fun damentalist beliefs or radical attitude. While not supporting the condition Newberry (2014, p290) clarified that the employee of the not-for-profit organisation inherit intrinsic reward from the satisfaction of helping clients and community member who are not in the position to defend for themselves. This organisation receive salary by requesting donations from the community or they also sale their item to raise money for the cause. Conclusion From the above case, we can see that the profit organisation is to generate income by selling goods and providing services. Their nature of business is to earn profit. On the other-hand, not-for-profit organizations are more service oriented, where they raise funds by the way of donations, for instances, public hospitals and trusts are not directly involved in earning income. Reference list Arvidson, M. and Lyon, F. (2014). Social impact measurement and non-profit organisations: compliance, resistance, and promotion. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 25(4), pp.869-886. Bryce, H.J. (2017). Financial and strategic management for nonprofit organizations. Walter de Gruyter GmbH Co KG. Chcsa.org.au. (2017). Available from: https://chcsa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/2016-Annual-Report-Complete.pdf [Accessed on 7 Sep. 2017]. Finkler, S.A., Smith, D.L., Calabrese, T.D. and Purtell, R.M. (2016). Financial management for public, health, and not-for-profit organizations. CQ Press. Lvanov, C.I. and Avasilc?i, S. (2014). Measuring the performance of innovation processes: A Balanced Scorecard perspective. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109, pp.1190-1193. Newberry, S. (2014). The use of accrual accounting in New Zealands central government: Second thoughts. Accounting, Economics and Law, 4(3), pp.283-297. Skelcher, C. and Smith, S.R. (2015). Theorizing hybridity: Institutional logics, complex organizations, and actor identities: The case of nonprofits. Public administration, 93(2), pp.433-448. Wesfarmers.com.au. (2017). Available from: https://www.wesfarmers.com.au/docs/default-source/reports/2016-annual-report.pdf?sfvrsn=4 [Accessed on 7 Sep. 2017]. Zeff, S.A., Radcliffe, V. and Gunz, S. (2014). Accounting and Auditing Activities of the Ontario Securities Commission, 1960s to 2008 Part 3: The Fifth Chief Accountant, 19962008. Accounting Perspectives, 13(4), pp.223-252.
Monday, December 2, 2019
But now, at the end of the 20th century, we are at a crucial turning point. We have upset natures sensitive equilibrium releasing harmful substances into the air, polluting rivers and oceans with industrial waste and tearing up the countryside to accommodate our rubbish. These are the consequences of the development of civilization. We are to stop it by joint efforts of all the people of the world. The range of environmental problems is wide. But the matters of peoples great concern nowadays are atmosphere and climate changes, depletion of the ozone layer, freshwater resources, oceans and coastal areas, deforestation and desertification, biological diversity, biotechnology, health and chemical safety. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) concentrates its activities on these issues. Acid Rains One of the most alarming forms of air pollution is acid rain. It results from the release into the atmosphere of sulphur and nitrogen oxides that react with water droplets and return to earth in the form of acid rain, mist or snow. We will write a custom essay sample on Nature Protection or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Acid rain iskilling forests (Nearly every species of tree is affected) It has acidified lakes and streams and they cant support fish, wildlife, plants or insects. Depletion of the Ozone Layer The protective layer of the Earth, the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from the suns destructive UV (ultraviolet) rays, is being damaged by CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). They are released by the daily use of industrial and household products: refrigerators, air conditioners, foam insulation, cleaning chemicals, food packaging. In the ozone layer they attack the ozone molecules making a Ã «holeÃ ». This Ã «holeÃ » allows more UV rays to penetrate to the Earth. It increases the risk of skin cancer, weakens the immune system of people. Besides, UV rays influence the oceans, the growth of plankton, an essential part of the marine-life food chain in the negative way, reduce economically important-crops (rice, cotton, soy beans). The life cycle is going to be undermined by the ozone. Destruction of the Tropical Forest Its generally agreed that the destruction of the tropical forest has a major impact on the world climate. The tropical rain forest is a natural recycler, provider and protector for our planet. It recycles carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, helps determine temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions and supports the most diverse ecosystem in the world. Deforestation could cause one forth of all species on earth to vanish in the next 25 years. These forests in Amazonia, South-East Asia and West and Central Africa are being destroyed at an alarming rate of 42 million acres per year. Measures to Be Taken We have only a few years to attempt to turn things around. We must review our wasteful, careless ways, we must consume less, recycle more, conserve wildlife and nature, act according to the dictum Ã «think locally, think globally, act locallyÃ ». To my mind, we are obliged to remove factories and plants from cities, use modern technologies, redesign and modify purifying systems for cleaning and trapping harmful substances, protect and increase the greenery and broaden ecological education. These are the main practical measures, which must he taken in order to improve the ecological situation. Some progress has been already made in this direction. 159 countries-members of the UNO have set up environmental protection agencies. They hold conferences discussing ecological problems, set up environmental research centres and take practical urgent measures to avoid ecological catastrophe. There are numerous public organisations such as Greenpeace that are doing much to preserve environment. The 5th of June is proclaimed the World Environmental Day by the UNO and is celebrated every year.